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The journal AGRICULTURA (A) publishes scientific works from the following fields: animal science, plant production, farm mechanisation, land management, agricultural economics, ecology, biotechnology, microbiology
ISSN 1581-5439

Mario LEŠNIK, Jernej BRZIN, Nataša MEHLE and Maja RAVNIKAR
pp. 43-46

An experiment was carried out to estimate the transmission of ‘Candidatus phytoplasma mali’ (CPM) in M9 apple rootstocks by formation of root bridges. Healthy (CPM-free) and infected rootstocks were planted together in plastic containers and maintained for four years under isolated insect-proof conditions. Aft er four years rootstocks were carefully extracted from growing substrate and rinsed by water jets. The presence or absence of CPM in rootstocks at the beginning and at the end of the experiment was confi rmed by PCR molecular tests. We monitored the occurrence of root bridges among roots of healthy and infected trees. Th e formation of tiny root bridges was observed in 4 out of 50 analysed containers (8%); the transmission of phytoplasma from the roots of infected to the roots of healthy rootstocks was detected by molecular means in 12 out of 50 containers (24%). In the orchard trial we analysed the frequency of occurrence of root bridges between neighbouring trees by applying herbicide glyphosate. It was applied to the middle trees of 150 selected tree triplets. The herbicide damage in neighbouring trees of selected tree triplets was observed in 5 tree triplets (3.3%). Th e experiment confi rmed the transmission of CPM by natural root bridges in M9 apple rootstock.

Key words: apple proliferation, ‘Candidatus phytoplasma mali’, apple, disease transmission


Slovenian:

Prenos fitoplazme 'Candidatus phytoplasma mali'z naravnim zraščanjem korenin jablan cepljenih na podlago M9

Izveden je bil poskus v katerem smo ocenili možnosti za prenos fitoplazme 'Candidatus phytoplasma mali' (CPM) med koreninami jablanove podlage M9 z naravnim zraščanjem (oblikovanjem koreninskih mostičkov). Zdrave (CPM proste) in okužene podlage smo skupaj posadili v plastične posode in jih v njih gojili za obdobje štirih let v razmerah brez dostopa žuželk. Po štirih letih gojenja smo podlage previdno odstranili iz rastnega substrata z uporabo vodnega curka, ki je korenine popolnoma ločil od substrata in omogočil natančne pregled korenin. Prisotnost ali odsotnost CPM v podlagah na začetku poskusa in po štirih letih smo dokazovali z uporabo PCR molekularnih testov. Izvedli smo analizo pojava koreninskih mostičkov med okuženimi in neokuženimi podlagami. Oblikovanje koreninskih mostičkov smo opazili pri 4 posodah od 50 preučevanih posod (8 %). Prenos CPM iz okuženih na neokužene podlage smo z uporabo molekulanih metod dokazali pri 12 od 50 preučevanih posod (24 %). V poskusu izvedenem v sadovnjaku, smo ugotavljali prisotnost koreninskih mostičkov med koreninskimi spleti sosednjih dreves na način, da smo posamezna drevesa tretirali s sistemičnim herbicidom glifosat in opazovali pojav poškodb na sosednjih dveh drevesih, ki niso bila tretirana. Poškodbe na drevesih, ki so rastla neposredno ob tretiranih drevesih smo odkrili pri petih trojčkih od obravnavanih trojčkov (3,3 %). Poskus je potrdil možnost prenosa CPM fitoplazme z zraščanjem korenin podlag jablan tipa M9.


Ključne besede: metličavost jablan / 'Candidatus phytoplasma mali' / podlage jablane / prenos / zraščanje korenin


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