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The journal AGRICULTURA (A) publishes scientific works from the following fields: animal science, plant production, farm mechanisation, land management, agricultural economics, ecology, biotechnology, microbiology
ISSN 1581-5439
pp. 12-18

The chernozem soils (rich, black mollisols) of the steppe are an important soil resource, but are being degraded by erosion. Experiments were conducted to identify in detail the effects of erosion on soil physical and chemical properties in order to guide preservation and reclamation efforts. These experiments compared three levels of erosion: E0 (not eroded), E1 (mild erosion), and E2 (moderate erosion), at 10 cm depth increments from 0 – 1 m. Eroded soils had significantly higher pH and carbonate values, and significantly lower humus and clay contents. For most soil macro- and micro-nutrients, E2 was 30-50% lower than E0. Among the 10 depths tested, significant differences occurred for most variables, including pH, carbonate, humus, clay, and all macronutrients. Micronutrient differences with depth occurred for Mn, Zn, and Cu, but not for Mg, Fe, Co, Ni, Pb, or Cr. There was a strong positive relationship with depth for pH and clay and a strong inverse relationship for carbonate, humus, N, C:N ratio, mobile P, Ca and Mn. A moderate inverse relationship with depth existed for K, Zn and Fe. In general, there were very strong correlations within a group of variables including pH, carbonate, humus, N, P, Ca, Mn and Zn. K and Cu exhibited strong correlations with many of the variables in the first group. Adding NPK increased yield for barley and maize in both non-eroded and eroded soils, with additional yield given by micro-nutrients, especially Co. In addition to rational use of fertilizer, a combination of carefully chosen crop rotation and other management strategies are needed in order to use and reclaim eroded soils.

Key words: erosion, soil profile, trace elements, humus, reclamation


Erozijski učinki v osrednjih stepskih černozjomskih tleh Ukrajine. I. lastnosti tal

Černozjom je stepska zemlja, ki je bogat tip tal, vendar pa je pogosto degradirana zaradi erozije. Poskusi so bili izvedeni z namenom ugotoviti učinke erozije na fizikalne in kemijske lastnosti tal in priprave navodil za ohranjanje in izboljšanje kakovosti tal. V poskusih smo primerjali tri stopnje erozije: E0 (ni izginila), E1 (blaga erozija) in E2 (zmerna erozije), na 10 cm globine v korakih 0-1 m. Spodjedla tla so imela značilno višje pH vrednosti in karbonatne vrednosti in značilno nižje vsebnosti humusa in gline. Za večino makro in mikro hranil tal, je E2 za 30-50% nižja od E0. Med 10 testiranimi globinami, je prišlo do značilnih razlik pri večini spremenljivk, vključno s pH vrednostjo, vsebnostjo karbonata, humus, gline in vseh makro hranil. Razlike v vsebnosti mikrohranil se z globino spreminjajo za Mn, Zn in Cu, vendar ne pa tudi za Mg, Fe, Co, Ni, Pb, ali Cr. Ugotovljena je bila močna pozitivna korelacija med globino in pH vrednostjo in gline ter značilno obratna korelacija za karbonate, humus, N, razmerje C: N in nevezani P, Ca in Mn. Srednje velika obratna korelacija je bila ugotovljena med globino in vsebnostjo K, Zn in Fe. Ugotovljena je bila močna korelacija znotraj skupine spremenljivk vključno s pH vrednostjo in vrednostjo karbonata, humusa, N, P, Ca, Mn in Zn. K in Cu izkazujeta močne korelacije z veliko proučevanih spremenljivk v prvi skupini. Dodajanje NPK gnojila je povečalo donos ječmena in koruze v obeh tipih tal z ali brez erozije z dodatnim vnosom mikrohranil še posebno Co. Poleg racionalno uporabo gnojil je potrebna kombinacija skrbno izbranega kolobarja in drugih strategij upravljanja, da se lahko uporabi in popravi nazaj erozirana tla.

Ključne besede: erozija; profil tal; elementi v sledovih; humus; obnavljanje


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