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Publishing of the journal Agricultura is financially supported by Slovenian Research Agency.

Izdajanje revije Agricultura je finančno podprto s strani Javne agencije za raziskovalno dejavnost Republike Slovenije.


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The journal AGRICULTURA (A) publishes scientific works from the following fields: animal science, plant production, farm mechanisation, land management, agricultural economics, ecology, biotechnology, microbiology
ISSN 1581-5439
Ewa REMBIALKOWSKA
pp. 19-26

During last decades the consumer trust in food quality has drastically decreased, mainly because of the growing ecological awareness and several food scandals like Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), dioxins and bacterial contamination. It has been found that intensive conventional agriculture could introduce contaminants into food chain, first of all nitrates and nitrosamines, residues of pesticides, antibiotics and growth hormones. Consumers started to look for safer and better controlled foods, produced in more environmentally friendly, authentic and local system.
Organically produced foods are widely believed to satisfy the above demands, providing better environment and higher nutritive values. Several research studies conducted in many European countries have partly confirmed this opinion.
Organic crops contain fewer nitrates and nitrites and fewer residues of pesticides than conventional ones. They contain as a rule more dry matter, more vitamin C and B-group vitamins, more phenolic compounds, more exogenous indispensable amino acids and more total sugars; however the level of β carotene is often higher in conventional plant products. Organic crops contain statistically more iron, magnesium and phosphorus, and they have usually better sensory quality. Vegetables, potatoes and fruits from organic production show better storage quality during winter keeping. Farm animals from organic herds show less metabolic diseases like ketosis, lipidosis, arthritis, mastitis and milk fever. Small experimental mammals (rats, rabbits) fed organically grown feed show better health and fertility parameters.
However, there are also some negatives: plants cultivated in organic system have as a rule 20 % lower yield than conventionally produced crops. Milk and meat yield is also lower in organic animal production, partly because parasitic afflictions are more frequent.
Several important problems need to be investigated and settled in coming years: environmental contamination of the organic crops (heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, and aromatic hydrocarbons), bacterial and fungi contamination (Salmonella, Campylobacter, mycotoxins). Last but not least, the impact of the organic food consumption on human health and well being still remains unknown and needs explanation.

Key words: food quality, organic plant products, organic animal products, animal health


Slovenian:

Vpliv ekološkega kmetijstva na kakovost hrane

V zadnjih desetletjih se je zaupanje potrošnikov v kakovost hrane drastično zmanjšalo, predvsem zaradi vse večje ekološke osveščenosti in več škandalov, kot so goveje spongiformne encefalopatije (BSE), dioksini in bakterijske okužbe. Ugotovljeno je bilo, da intenzivno konvencionalno kmetijstvo lahko vnaša onesnaževalce v prehransko verigo, tu mislimo predvsem nitratov in nitrozaminov, ostanke pesticidov, antibiotikov in rastnih hormonov. Potrošniki so začeli iskati varnejša in bolje nadzorovana živila, ki so proizvedena na bolj okolju prijazen način, pristno in lokalno proizvedeno hrano. Ekološko pridelana hrana se pogosto domneva, da izpolnjuje zgoraj navedene zahteve in zagotavljajo boljše okolje in višje hranilne vrednosti. Številne raziskovalne študije izvedene v evropskih državah so deloma potrdile to mnenje. Ekološki pridelki vsebujejo manj nitratov in nitritov ter manj ostankov pesticidov od konvencionalno pridelane hrane. Vsebujejo tudi praviloma več suhe snovi, več vitaminov C in vitaminov B-skupine, več fenolnih spojin, več eksogenih nepogrešljivih aminokisline in več skupnih sladkorjev. Tudi raven β-karotena je pogosto večja pri običajnih rastlinskih proizvodih. Organski pridelki vsebujejo statistično več železa, magnezija in fosforja, ter imajo navadno boljšo senzorično kakovost. Zelenjava, krompir in sadje iz ekološke pridelave kažejo boljšo kakovost shranjevanja v zimskem času. Domače živali iz ekoloških čred kažejo manj presnovnih bolezni, kot so ketoza, lipidoz, artritis, vnetje vimena in mlečna mrzlica. Mala eksperimentalni sesalci (podgane, zajci) krmljeni z ekološko pridelano krmo kažejo boljše zdravstvene in plodnostne parametre. Vendar pa obstajajo tudi negativne strani: rastline, ki se gojijo na ekološki način imajo praviloma 20% manjši pridelek od konvencionalno pridelave. Prireja mleka in mesa je v ekološki živinoreji prav tako nižja, deloma zato, ker so parazitske okužbe pogostejše. Nekatere pomembne probleme je potrebno raziskati in rešiti v prihodnjih letih: okoljsko kontaminacijo ekoloških pridelkov (težke kovine, poliklorirani bifenili (PCB), dioksini in aromatski ogljikovodiki), bakterijske in glivne kontaminacije (Salmonella, Campylobacter, mikotoksini). Nenazadnje je tudi vpliv ekološko hrane na človekovo zdravje in dobro počutje še vedno neznanka in potrebuje pojasnilo.

Ključne besede: kakovost hrane; ekološki rastlinski proizvodi; ekološki živalski proizvodi; zdravje živali


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